The prime minister said he expected to choose his cabinet ministers within two weeks.
"We said we would (elect a cabinet) a month from the liberation. We have two weeks left and we intend to meet that deadline."
Keeb did not set out any specific plans for the coming months, but said that worries over foreign oil contracts were unfounded. "We understand that we had 42 years with a brutal dictator... concerns are in order. But there should be none of them," he said. "We demand respect for our national rights."
Interim Oil Minister Ali Tarhouni had been favourite to become prime minister, but received only three votes, highlighting the unpredictable nature of the emerging politics in the North African state.
Many analysts have pointed to the divisions emerging within the NTC, but Keeb said any fears were unfounded.
"Within the NTC, what you see is democracy in practice. This is new for us in Libya. This is democracy in practice," he said.
The hoped-for departure towards peaceful politics comes as NATO ended its military intervention in Libya which helped bring about the death of Gaddafi.
"It's great to be in Libya, free Libya," NATO chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen told a news conference in the capital Tripoli.
"We acted to protect you. Together we succeeded. Libya is finally free, from Benghazi to Brega, from Misrata to the Western Mountains and to Tripoli."
A NATO statement said an Airborne Early Warning and Control Aircraft used for coordinating the air and sea mission concluded the last alliance flight of the Libyan operation at midnight Libyan time.
It said that since the beginning of the NATO operation, NATO aircraft conducted more than 26,500 sorties, including 9,700 strike missions.